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Arabidopsis Plastid AMOS1/EGY1 Integrates Abscisic Acid Signaling to Regulate Global Gene Expression Response to Ammonium Stress

Bibliography:

B. Li‚Äč, Q. Li, L. Xiong, H.J. Kronzucker, U. Kraemer and W. Shi. Arabidopsis Plastid AMOS1/EGY1 Integrates Abscisic Acid Signaling to Regulate Global Gene Expression Response to Ammonium Stress. Plant Physiology, 160, 2040-2051, (2012). 10.1104/pp.112.206508

Authors:

B. Li, Q. Li, L. Xiong, H.J. Kronzucker, U. Kraemer and W. Shi

Keywords:

N/A

Year:

2012

Abstract:

‚ÄčAmmonium (NH(4)(+)) is a ubiquitous intermediate of nitrogen metabolism but is notorious for its toxic effects on most organisms. Extensive studies of the underlying mechanisms of NH(4)(+) toxicity have been reported in plants, but it is poorly understood how plants acclimate to high levels of NH(4)(+). Here, we identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant, ammonium overly sensitive1 (amos1), that displays severe chlorosis under NH(4)(+) stress. Map-based cloning shows amos1 to carry a mutation in EGY1 (for ethylene-dependent, gravitropism-deficient, and yellow-green-like protein1), which encodes a plastid metalloprotease. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that among the genes activated in response to NH(4)(+), 90% are regulated dependent on AMOS1/EGY1. Furthermore, 63% of AMOS1/EGY1-dependent NH(4)(+)-activated genes contain an ACGTG motif in their promoter region, a core motif of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive elements. Consistent with this, our physiological, pharmacological, transcriptomic, and genetic data show that ABA signaling is a critical, but not the sole, downstream component of the AMOS1/EGY1-dependent pathway that regulates the expression of NH(4)(+)-responsive genes and maintains chloroplast functionality under NH(4)(+) stress. Importantly, abi4 mutants defective in ABA-dependent and retrograde signaling, but not ABA-deficient mutants, mimic leaf NH(4)(+) hypersensitivity of amos1. In summary, our findings suggest that an NH(4)(+)-responsive plastid retrograde pathway, which depends on AMOS1/EGY1 function and integrates with ABA signaling, is required for the regulation of expression of NH(4)(+)-responsive genes that maintain chloroplast integrity in the presence of high NH(4)(+) levels.

ISSN:

0176-1617